The Primary Redemptive Names of God

by Paul Keith Davis

Psalms 23 contains eight redemptive names of Jehovah:

1) Jehovah Rohi - "Jehovah is my shepherd...." (Psalms 23:1)
2) Jehovah Jireh - "I shall not want." (Psalms 23:1)
3) Jehovah Shalom - The Lord is my peace. (Psalms 23:2) "He makes me to lie down in green
pastures. He leads me beside still waters."
4) Jehovah Rophi - The Lord, my healer. (Psalms 23:3) "He restores my soul."
5) Jehovah Tsidkenu - The Lord is righteousness. (Psalms 23:3) "He leads me in paths of
righteousness for His name's sake."
6) Jehovah Nissi - The Lord is my banner. (Psalms 23:5) "He prepares a table before me in
the presence of my enemies."
7) Jehovah M'Kaddesh - The Lord my sanctifier. (Psalms 23:5) "He anoints my head with oil."
8) Jehovah Shammah - The Lord is there. (Psalms 23:4) "...thou art with me."

Jehovah Rohi - The Lord, My Shepherd (Psalms 23:1)

Although Israel learned to magnify the Lord for life, healing, victory, holiness, peace, and protection, they were still pilgrims, and they were in dire need of divine provision in their wilderness journey with all its weariness, physical needs, duties, dangers and difficulties. Thus, there came the revelation of God as their Jehovah Rohi, the One whose Shepherd's love, care, and resources they could depend upon in all the un-trodden and unknown pathways of the future. Thus the Lord is the feeder to provide for us, keeper to protect us, companion to cheer us, friend to help us, pastor to comfort us, and herdsman near to us, as His frequent revelations prove.

Jehovah Jireh - The Lord Will Provide (Genesis 22:14)

The definition of this term is "The Lord will see" or "The Lord will provide". For man, this conjunctive meaning seems impossible. However, for the all knowing God of creation, the dual meaning is easily exemplified. His pre-vision means His pro-vision. That was Abraham's revelation given to the place where He found the ram provided as a substitute for Isaac. This miracle was not of a normal significance; but rather it was a creative miracle by God for the sacrifice, in the same sense that the Lord created a body through the miraculous conception for the substitute sacrifice for man. As Elohim, God demanded the sacrifice of Isaac, but as Jehovah He made complete provision of a substitute for the son Abraham willingly offered. The place of this miracle is important. It is the first recorded instance in scripture of the naming of a place after a divine interposition or manifestation.

Jehovah Tsidkenu - The Lord Our Righteousness (Jeremiah 33:16)

In the Old Testament, there is evident revelation of Israel as being a nation seeking after righteousness. Yet in their passionate desire for righteousness, the people discovered their own unrighteousness. Therefore, we become people who seek after purity of heart, so we can enjoy communion with God. "Blessed are the pure in heart for they shall see God." (Matthew 5:8) The Greeks sought after wisdom, and the Romans pursued power and world dominion; but today there is a remnant of God's chosen people who seek after God and His righteousness. To the glory of the gospel, is that Jehovah Tsidkenu became flesh and was made unto us righteousness. (1 Corinthians 1:30) A righteous God pronounced death as the penalty of sin--yet that same God became flesh, the righteous branch, to taste death for every sinner and to provide the righteousness that is transferred or imputed to the believer and is thereby accepted before God. Acceptable righteousness; therefore, is not attained but obtained.

Jehovah Shalom - The Lord Our Peace

The word "Peace", and words directly related to it, appear over 400 times in scripture. It is one of the most precious and fundamentally essential ingredients for a believer to be at peace with God and know the peace of God. It relates to a harmonious relationship obtained through reconciliation of a debt paid in full. Peace or "Shalom" is often translated--welfare, good health, prosperity, favor, rest whole, finished, restitution or repay and perfect.

Jehovah Rophi - The Lord Our Physician (Exodus 15:26)

From Israel, we learn that in times of sickness God heals, for He is our Jehovah Rophi, "I am Jehovah thy healer". To express God's grace in restoring spirit life, He declared that He healed all of our diseases, spiritual as well as physical. (Psalms 103:3) He also heals the broken in heart (Psalms 147:3), and for those who are backsliding, He is their healer as well (Jeremiah 3:22). The scriptures also clearly indicate the removal of bodily infirmity (Genesis 20:17; Matthew 4:23).

Jehovah Nissi - The Lord Our Banner (Exodus 17:15-16)

Moses took care that God should have the glory for the victory over Amalek. Instead of setting up a trophy in the honor of Joshua (though it had been a standard policy to put marks of honor upon men), he built an altar to God's honor. What is most carefully recorded is the inscription upon the altar, Jehovah-Nissi - The Lord my Banner. The presence and power of Jehovah was the banner under which they were enlisted, and the banner by which they were kept together. Jehovah Nissi in literal Hebrew means "A hand upon the throne of Jehovah". Jehovah will have war with Amalek from generation to generation. Amalek's hand had dared to assault Jehovah's throne to overturn it, so He gave Israel the authority and power of that throne to overwhelm Amalek. The uplifted hands of Moses symbolized this banner. Here we have an illustration of the hand of faith outstretched in prayer.

Jehovah M'Kaddesh - The Lord Who Sanctifies (Exodus 31:13)

The term holiness is from the Hebrew word "Kodesh" and is allied to "sanctify". It is translated as dedicate, consecrate, hallow, and holy in various translations. "I am Jehovah M'Kaddesh - The Lord who sanctifies you". This term's main influence relates to moral and spiritual purity. In the New Testament, many scriptures relate to the process of sanctification, the sum of which is provided to the church through the atoning work of Christ:

SANCTIFIED By Truth (John 15:3; 17:17)
SANCTIFIED By the Blood (Hebrews 13:12)
SANCTIFIED By Faith (Acts 26:18)
SANCTIFIED By Prayer (I Timothy 4:5)

Jehovah Tsebahoth - The Lord of Hosts (I Samuel 1:3)

This term in Hebrew is taken from sabaoth, meaning host or hosts, with special reference to warfare or service, and the word often appears as the Lord of Hosts. This Hebrew term has also rendered armies. This reference for Jehovah appears 14 times in the book of Haggai and 24 times in the book of Malachi. In Zechariah, the Lord of Hosts occurs 53 times and is of great interest, seeing that it is connected with God's action in judgment and blessing upon Israel. The expression "Thus says the Lord of Hosts", implied divine revelation and divine authority; a phrase like "Holiness unto the Lord of Hosts", (Zechariah 14:21). When the conquest of Canaan was about to begin, the Lord was revealed as the unknown warrior with naked sword standing before Joshua. When Joshua asked the question, "are you for us or against us"; the reply came, "I am Prince of the Host of Jehovah", therefore Joshua humbly surrendered his sword to Jehovah Tsebahoth. The whole of His creation is under His control and obeys His sovereign command, willingly or otherwise. He is:

1) Lord of all angelic hosts (I Kings 22:19)
2) The Lord of all stellar things (Genesis 1:16)
3) The Lord of all the feathered hosts (I Kings 17:2-7)
4) The Lord of all the animal hosts (Isaiah 11:6)
5) The Lord of all the human hosts (Isaiah 40:15)
6) The Lord of the satanic hosts (Matthew 28:18)

Jehovah Heleyon - The Lord Most High

Jehovah Heleyon is frequently used in the Psalms as a declaration of God's highest position or kingship. This title reveals God as the high and lofty one that inhabits eternity (Isaiah 57:15). It is prophetically speaking of Jehovah's reign over the earth at the time of Israel's restoration or the restoration of God's chosen people. It is also reassuring for us to know that during these difficult days, that the Most High rules in the kingdom of men, also (Daniel 4:25). This redemptive name places God at the highest place of every realm of life, so that He can fulfill His will in and through us. When applied to God, this redemptive name reveals that though He is the highest, there are others below Him endowed by Him with like natures, and therefore, in some way, related to Him by His Spirit.
Jehovah-Makkeh - The Lord Who Smites (Ezekiel 7:9)

The Lord has given Israel to us as an example of His dealings with man. He set Israel in the midst of heathen nations as His witness, but instead of revealing and glorifying Him, she changed His judgments into wickedness greater than all the nations she was supposed to influence for Him. Therefore He said, "You shall know that I am Jehovah-Makkeh", the Lord who smites thee. (Ezekiel 7:9) The 9th chapter of Daniel reveals that Israel found herself in captivity because she refused to heed the voice of the Lord God, which was set before her by His servants, the prophets. As a result of Israel's disobedience, the Lord smote Israel and disciplined her because of her unbelief and rejection of His true revealed word. The church has also experienced a similar disciplinary period over the past forty years because of her rejection of the true revealed word as brought to the church by His servants, the prophets. The good news is His promise to restore. According to Hosea 6:1-2, Come; let us return to the LORD. For He has torn us but He will heal us; He has wounded us but He will bandage us. He will revive us after two days; He will raise us up on the third day, that we may live before Him."

Jehovah Gmolah - The God of Recompense (Jeremiah 51:6)

The scriptures declare that retribution or recompense does not belong to us but rather it belongs to God. In Jeremiah 51, the Lord declares that He will severely punish Babylon because of their harsh dealing with Israel, thereby revealing Himself as the God of retribution. The same was true of Egypt when they placed the nation of Israel under a heavy burden and struck the apple of His eye. When a person is shamefully treated or misjudged, even wrongfully condemned or blamed when innocent, it becomes very difficult not to take up our own defense, and leave our reputation to God. Yet this is the precise way that He has instructed for us to respond. Retribution and recompense belong only to him. Vengeance is His, and He promised to repay (Deuteronomy 32:35; 2 Thessalonians 1:8).

Jehovah Shammah - The Lord Is There (Ezekiel 48:35)

The name of the city revealed through Ezekiel is Jehovah Shammah - the Lord is there. This location is so named because of the manifest presence and power of Jehovah residing there. We also know from scripture that God does not dwell in temples made by hands, but rather we are to be God's temple. This is the last of Jehovah's redemptive titles in the order of their Old Testament occurrence. It discloses the consummation of His progressive self-revelation.
The people of Israel were brought out of the bondage of Egypt by His manifest presence (Deuteronomy 4:37). However, the people willfully and continually sinned, and the conscious manifest Presence of God was rescinded. Yet when the people repented of their gross idolatry, because of His love and pity, the angel of His presence redeemed them once again (Isaiah 63:9).

The apostle Paul describes the church as a habitation of God, a house of God, and the building growing unto a holy temple in the Lord.

The question remains: Does the Glory of Jehovah fill Jehovah's house, and are we, members of that house displaying His Glory?

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